Sevastopol Branch of the State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine named after L.I. Mitin

Lighthouse Tarkhankuts'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 45°20.8' N
Longitude – 32°29.8' Е
Tower height from the basement – 33 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 36 m
Light visibility range – 17 miles

The Tarkhankuts'kyi lighthouse is one of the oldest ones in the Black Sea area. It was built on the western extremity of the Crimea Peninsula in 1816, and put into operation on June 16, 1817. That place with its shoals and reefs was always considered the most dangerous for mariners in the Black Sea. The mariners called it a "devil's cape" or a "cape of storms".

The lighthouse originally presented a conical stone tower 36 m high with a lantern structure, which had a form of a regular decagon 3.3 m high. The lantern included a catoptric lighting unit of 15 lamps and reflectors bought in England. It gave a fixed white light providing the visibility range of about 12 miles.

With development of such Black Sea ports as Mykolaiv and Kherson, which received not only coastal vessels but also foreign ones, the navigation in the Tarkhankuts'kyi region revived. With regard to the said above the most powerful (for that time) in the Black Sea dioptric light-optical unit of the 1st category was installed at the lighthouse. It lighted the sea sector between the Karamrun (KaramBuruns'kyi) and Uret Capes.

Since the lamps used at lighthouses were rather imperfect, the workers had to take off soot from their fuses several times a night (the lantern was dark at that time). They say it was during cleaning a lamp, that the Emperor's yacht "Livadia" wrecked in the middle 70's of the 19th century. That made the authorities to look for new methods of the lighthouses lighting.

The lighthouse, mainly its lighting unit, were repeatedly improved, and eguipped with additional signalling means. The outstanding event was the installing of the first in the Black Sea area radio beacon with the range of 300 km in 1934.

With the beginning of the Great Patriotic war the lighthouse equipment was dismounted and its personnel sent to defend Sevastopol.

As to the Tarkhankuts'kyi lighthouse one can say that the wind energy was used there for the first time to change the accumulator batteries and to illuminate the lighthouse premises, that made it possible to decrease fuel consumption.

A considerable reconstruction of the lighthouse was made in the 70's: the renewed lighting units, built new dwelling houses, installed gas supply to lighthouse buildings, put into operation electronic radar time system, which increased the accuracy of radars' characteristics and simplified the control of their operation.

Despite of the hurricane winds, groundwater rises, which injured essentially the lighthouse, today's Tarkhankuts'kyi lighthouse is an updated complex with radio- and light beacons, sound-signal navigation facilities, station of radio navigation system of the average radius of action, basic and doubling power supply means, i.e., that is not a desert place but an oasis which attracts the local residents and those who come to have rest in the Crimea.

Lighthouse Yevpatoriis'kyi/td>
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 45°09.1' N
Longitude – 33°16.2'Е
Tower height from the basement – 52 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 53 m
Light visibility range – 20 miles

The lighthouse is located on the western coast of the Crimea Peninsula in the Kalamits'ka Bay in the lowland sandy cape. It main purpose – navigation on the approaches to the port of Yevpatoriia.

That was the first metal lighthouse in the Black Sea. It began operating on August 1, 1861. The tower, manufactured in London, represented four metal walls connected by diagonal cross bars and four intermediate platforms. Its lower part was faced with boards. A cathodioptric light optical unit of the 4th category bought in France had been set at the tower top, in a copper lantern. The lighthouse gave a fixed white light flashing every other minute.

Since the lighthouse tower was open, it was difficult to serve the light, and the lighthouse's operation was unreliable in winter. Allowing for the ever increasing navigation intensity in that region, it could lead to severe results. Thus, a more advanced lamp which worked on petroleum was installed in the lighthouse in 1871. That also could not satisfy completely the mariners, but they had to accept it; the Russian-Turkey war was begun in 1877 and a question of the lighthouse reequipment was set aside for an indefinite term.

The lighthouse was repeatedly repaired in the soviet times; they improved its light-optical equipment, and a radio beacon was installed there in the 30's.

In the beginning of the Great Patriotic warthe lighthouse operated in the manipulation conditions. Its operators observed permanently the air and mine conditions.

After the war, in 1955, a new brick octahedral prism-shaped, 20.8 m high tower was built near the old one. That made it possible to increase the light visibility range up to 13 miles. A bit later a technological premise with autonomous diesel-electrical station was constructed, and a circular redio beacon was installed there.

A new tower of the monolith ferroconcrete in a special metal frame was constructed by military builders in 1970 following the type project; the tower height reached 52 m. Nowaday it is the highest lighthouse tower in the Black Sea. It has a shape of the cut pyramid with an octahedral lantern device at its top platform, which is 3 m in diameter with polished plate glasses. The new lighthouse began operating on June 9, 1970.

The Solodunov's Lighthouse
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 45°07.6' N
Longitude – 33°31.4' E
Tower height from the basement – 22 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 27 m
Light visibility range – 15 miles

The Solodunov's lighthouse is a very "young" one. It was built in 1986 and called in the honour of rear-admiral Oleksandr Viktorovich Solodunov who headed the Hydrographic Service of the Black Sea Fleet in 1940–1952.

The building looks as a round metal tower with red and white horizontal bands. The lighthouse operation is automatic, it ensures the necessary safety of navigation on the approaches to the port of Yevpatoriia.

Lighthouse Karantynnyi (Quarantine)
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 45°11.2' N
Longitude – 33°22.б' Е
Tower height from the basement – 21 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 23 m
Light visibility range – 12 miles

The lighthouse was put into operation in 1897 for ensuring the necessary safe navigation of the sea trading ships on the approaches to the port of Yevpatoriia. It was placed on the Karantynnyi Cape of Yevapatorian Bay. That is the origin of the lighthouse name.

For all the period of its existence the lighthouse was subjected to ruining actions of different character. But it was most considerably damaged in the years of the Great Patriotic war: it was almost completely ruined. Its reconstruction was started in the early 60's of the last century, and it was finished only in 1967. The Karantynnyi lighthouse appearance has not been changed since that time.

In 1994, the Hydrographic Service of the Black Sea Fleet of RF, which used it after the division of the Black Sea fleet, extinguished the lighthouse in unidirectional order and transferred it to the category of non-light marks. Only in 2006 the lighthouse was repaired by force of the State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine and put into operation; now, its saving light illuminates the night seaway to Yevpatoriia.

Lighthouse Kostiantynivs'kyi Leaving Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 44°37.7' N
Longitude – 33°30.9' E
Tower height from the basement – 8 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 19 m
Light visibility range – 14 miles

The history of this lighthouse as well as that of the Kostiantynivs'kyi Exit Rear lighthouse is closely related with the Inkerman leading lighthouses which had guaranteed the safe navigation to all the ships and vessels which followed to the Sevastopol's'ka Bay or in the opposite direction. The light source was an oil lamp with a reflector. The lighthouse gave a white fixed light and was one of the most powerful one in the Black Sea – its light visibility range was 22 miles.

During the Crimean war of 1853–1856 the lighthouse building suffered very much from the artillery fire, but it was soon repaired (1859). The lighthouse also suffered from elements, but its operation was always renewed because each sailor hoped on its saving light. A new dioptric light-optical unit of the 4th category was installed there in 1897, and in 1907 its light was made more intensive by changing the Kerosene lamps for the Kerosene-heat burners.

To increase the safety of navigation Traffic Separation Scheme had been established for the ships and vessels leaving port of Sevastopol in 1985. A decision was made to create an exit leading. In 1987 after detailed calculations, which concerned all the elements of the lighthouse operation, the Front leading lighthouse was built at the Kostiantynivs'kyi Cape. They also made a permanent electric power line which guaranteed the lighthouse light reliability.

Lighthouse Inkermans'kyi Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 44°37.1' N
Longitude – 33°35.4'E
Tower height from the basement – 11 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 91 m
Light visibility range – 18 miles

The Front lighthouse in the group of the Inkermans'kyi lighthouses was installed in 1821 at the rock on the northern coast at the top of the Sevastopol's'ka Bay. It ensured the safety of navigation for vessels in the bay entrance. It was called the Lower Inkermans'kyi lighthouse, and looked as a stone tetrahedral two-storey building, 14.4 m high. The Inkermans'kyi Lower lighthouse as well as the Kostiantynivs'kyi Front Entrance lighthouse had suffered from the Crimean war of 1853–1856, but during two years it was completely repaired. It was eguipped with a new dioptric light-optical unit of the 4th category bought in 1897 in Paris at firm "Sotter"; in 1902 the unit was substituted by the kerosene lamp with kerosene-heated torches. But the fixed white light of the lighthouse was not seen on the back ground of city lights and it was substituted by the flasing white-red light.

Beginning from the first days of the Great Patriotic war the hydrographers had to camouflage the lighthouse light by infrared light filters. Though it complicated the situation, but made it invisible for the enemy. However the lighthouse was ruined, and the manipulation station began working at its place. There was no case, during all the days of Sevastopol defense, when the light was not lit or radar did not work on the first demand of the soviet ships.

The lighthouse was rebuilt completely in 1946, and on November 17 it began operating in accordance with the standard characteristics. Beginning from 1987 this lighthouse is simultaneously considered the Kostiantynivs'kyi Exit Rear lighthouse.

Lighthouse Inkermans'kyi Rear
Tower height from the basement – 11 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 196 m
Light visibility range – 24 miles
The Inkermans'kyi Rear lighthouse is located at a distance of 1.8 miles from the Inkermans'kyi Front lighthouse.

The lighthouse history counts almost two hundred years. Having visited the Akhtiar Bay in the early 19th century, captain Heiden reported to the Shipyard-Collegium that the "wonderful part of Sevastopol is only buoyaged by landmarks" and recommended to install a lighthouse at the Bay entrance. This recommendation was recognized a competent one and the construction of the Inkermans'kyi leading lighthouses started in 1820 on the initiative of the Black Sea Fleet Head-Quarters.

There was a city of Doras near Sevastopol in the antiquity; Turkey which had conquered the city called it Inkerman (that is "a new fortress" in translation from Turkish).

The lighthouse began functioning in 1821.

In the "Description of Lighthouses and Beacons of the Black and Azov Seas" published in 1851 it was written: "orientating to the leading marks of those lighthouses... the vessels enter the bay and come out of it even at stormy nights. When approaching Sevastopol from NW, you cannot see the lighthouses' lights over the coast, and have to orientate to the Khersones'kyi lighthouse until both leading lights be seen in one direction, then, leaving the Khersones lighthouse starboard you would follow straight along the leading to the roadstead".

The lighthouse was built at the high rock, then way to the lighthouse was too steep, had sudden turns and it was very difficult to get there, especially in winter when even all-terrain drive vehicle could hardly move.

The lighthouse was repeatedly repaired for the long years of its existence, with improving light characteristic and working conditions of the personnel. The lighthouse was on-line even in the years of the Great Patriotic war, though with some restrictions.

But the lighthouse staff did not avoid their fate – it was in the war years that the lighthouse keepers and members of the manipulation team (28 persons) died from a direct hit of the bomb. In 1954 the remains of lighthouse personnel and Red fleet mariners were buried at the Fraternal memorial burial of Sevastopol defenders.

The lighthouse reconstruction was started after the Sevastopol liberation, and in 1946 it began operating in standard conditions. The lighthouse gives a diamond-white light, provides visibility range of 24 miles.

Beginning from 1978 the lighthouse functions all day round (24 hours) for better leading line visibility during the morning and evening fogs arising over the horizon and in the case of unfavourable weather.

Lighthouse Artek
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 44°33.5' N
Longitude – 34°18.3' E
Tower height from the basement – 9 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 139 m
Light visibility range – 13 miles

The lighthouse was mounted in 1977 in the territory of the well-known International Children's Camp Artek with the purpose to raise the safety of navigation in the area from the port of Yalta to the Aiudag Cape. This lighthouse, like some others, that were subordinated to Russian Federation after the division of the Black Sea Fleet of the USSR, did not avoid their transfer to the category of nonlight navigation marks; moreover, it was abolished even as the navigation mark.

In its initial form the lighthouse looked as a round metal column with white and red horizontal bands. In 2006 the Artek lighthouse was renewed by the efforts of Sevastopol's'ka after L.I.Mitin Branch of SHSU; even the tower height was increased by 3 m. Thus the lighthouse became one more outstanding memorial in the territory of the International Children's Camp Artek.

Lighthouse Ai-Todors'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 44°25.7' N
Longitude – 34°07.4' Е
Tower height from the basement – 9 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 87 m
Light visibility range – 24 miles

The Ai-Todors'kyi lighthouse was mounted at the Ai-Todors'kyi Cape in the south-eastern part of the Crimea Peninsula. Its light serves the navigation along the peninsula and on the approaches to the port of Yalta.

The lighthouse was put into operation in 1835. Firstly it was the round stone tower with counterforts. It became an octahedral lighthouse building after the reconstruction of 1876.

During its long-term history the lighthouse has suffered a lot of shocks: both natural and caused by the war, it was never extinguished for a long time, but often worked in special regime.

In the years of the Great Patriotic war the lighthouse tower, dwelling house and houshold premises were ruined as a result of artillery bombardments. But the structures were rebuilt in 1944, and a green flashing light helped again to orientate the ships and vessels following along the southern coast of the Crimea.

A radio beacon of American manufacturing was put into operation at the lighthouse in 1948; in 1965 it was changed by the advanced home one: that was a rotary one, with vast action radius.

A historical relic – the Roman military settlement of Kharaks is situated in the lighthouse territory; there is also a Museum of the Lighthouse service and World-Wide Antarctic Expedition of 1982–1983.That is why, the lighthouse always attracted the tourists and holiday-makers; some eminent persons used to visit the lighthouse. A.P.Chekhov, L.M.Tolstoy, V.V.Mayakovsky, well-known military commanders, scientists, astronauts were among the visitors.

Lighthouse Sarych
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 44°23.3' N
Longitude – 33°44.5' Е
Tower height from the basement – 12 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 38 m
Light visibility range – 17 mies

The Sarych lighthouse stands on the Sarych Cape which is the southern extremity of the Crimea Peninsula. Its main function is to ensure the necessary safety of navigation along the coast and on the approaches to the ports of Sevastopol, Yalta and other port points.

On August 20,1898, the snow-white lighthouse tower looking like a chess castle, began operating at full power. It gave a fixed white light with red and white flashes. The light elevation above the Sea level was 37.5 m and from the tower basement – 12 m. At that time the light source was a Kerosene lamp with burners with three lamps. In 1900 was substituted by the gas-heat torch which was used up to 1957, until the lighthouse was transferred to electrical lighting.

During first years of the soviet power the lighthouse light was functioning irregularly. Because of bad provision and remotedness from industry centers, there were few specialists who wanted to work at the lighthouse. Only in the beginning of the 30's the lighthouse operation became regular.

In the years of the Great Patriotic war the Sarych lighthouse was used both as the navigation facility and reliable emplacement. The lighthouse workers sent soviet mariners the code signals at night through a narrow slot in a shaded glass. Thus they helped them enter the Sevastopol's'ka Bay and come back. When Hitlerites approached the lighthouse, the defenders fired them from a machine and personal guns.

A new electrical device was assembled at the lighthouse in 1966; it gives white isophase light even now. A sound dynamic device was also put into operation there in 1971.

The lighthouse settlement of Sarych is one of the most picturesque corners of the Crimea.

Lighthouse Khersones'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 44°35.0' N
Longitude – 33°22.8' Е
Tower height from the basement – 36 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 34 m
Light visibility range – 16 miles

The Khersones'kyi lighthouse was one of the first ones in the Black Sea coast, that provided a necessary sailing safety on the approaches to Sevastopol.

The lighthouse was built in 1816 at the Khersones'kyi Cape in the south-western part of the Crimea Peninsula. The lighthouse was first a stone cone-like tower with a lantern in a form of a regular decagon at its top; the lantern was substituted in 1929.

In the years of the Great Patriotic war the lighthouse was completely ruined, but it continued lighting – an acetylene lighting unit stood on supports of the monolith-stones distorted by explosions which remained of the tower. But very soon a trihedral woody tower with a lantern arised at the usual place.

The lighthouse was completely reconstructed on September 21, 1951, and since then a 36-meter high well-proportioned tower of white Inkermans'kyi stone has been shining under the southern Sun. A polyzonal lighting unit brought from the Askold lighthouse in the Pacific was installed in the tower lanterns; it ensured the light visibility range of 16 miles. Later on the lighthouse was periodically a subject of repair and accomplishment, and its technological equipment was perfected.

A whole lighthouse settlement has arised on the former Khersones'kyi Cape. There is a lighthouse beach, sauna, children's playgrounds; the lighthouse has its telephone communication, water supply system.

Lighthouse Yaltyns'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 44°29.5' N
Longitude – 34°10.2' E
Tower height from the basement – 12 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 15 m
Light visibility range – 13 miles

The lighthouse was mounted at the southern margin of the eastern mole of the port of Yalta situated on the southern coast of the Crimea peninsula. It ensures the port approaches and sailing in the coastal water area.

The lighthouse illuminated the sea sector from 90° to 214°, light elevation above the Sea level was 13.5 m, from the basement – 6 m. A lamp was installed on the yellow-stained tower. But to ensure the good visibility the operator had to take off soot 2–3 times a night letting the lamp down to the earth. That was inconvenient and caused danger for mariners, sinse it deprived them of precious light for a certain time.

The building of the Yalta port was completed in the mid-80's and its directorate proposed to mount a metal tower, 8 m high, at the edge of the constructed mole. But there were no money, and the lighthouse began functioning only in 1908. A dioptric light-optical unit of the 4th category which gave a fixed red light with visibility range of 11 miles was installed in the lantern building.

That lighthouse "survived" rather safely after the First World and Civil wars, the Crimean earthquake of September 11, 1927, the Great Patriotic war. After the Crimea liberation the lighthouse was used, besides ensuring the safety of navigation, for the navigation-hydrographic trawling of Yalta roadstead.

In 1957 a new white octahedral tower, 12 m high was built instead of the former lighthouse; it was equipped with a modern light-optical unit which gave red long-flashing light for 13 miles.

That lighthouse has been preserved till now, though in winter 1969 it was strongly damaged because of a severe hurricane: communication and electric power and water supply systems had been put out of operation. But everything was renewed soon and the lighthouse still serves reliably to mariners.


The sea ports of Kerch, Sevastopol, Feodosiia, Yalta, Yevpatoriia are closed until the restoration of the constitutional order of Ukraine within the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol that are temporarily occupied by the Russian Federation (in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine on June 16, 2014, No. 255).