Odesa Branch of the State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine

Lighthouse of the Zmiiny Island
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 45°15.3'N
Longitude – 30°12.3'E
Tower height from the basement – 18 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 59 m
Light visibility range – 17 miles

The building height with a lantern is 73 feet from the basement, 203 feet above the sea surface...".

After the Crimean war of 1853–1856 the lighthouse and the island belonged to Romania (to be more precise, to Turkey). A dioptric light-optical unit of the 2nd category was installed in the lighthouse in 1862; it ensured the light visibility range of about 16 miles. That was the first at the Black Sea lighting unit of Frenel system. The light source was a kerosene-heat torch. The lighthouse existed in such a form till 1940, when the Zmiiny Island jointly with Bessarabia formed a part of the USSR.

During the Great Patriotic war the lighthouse was destroyed and its lighting device put out of the operation. But the lighthouse work was set up by the efforts of the manipulation detachment which belonged to the Odesa region of Hydrographic Service of the Black Sea Fleet of the USSR. The repairment works were finished in 1950–1952; and radio beacon and nautophone device were mounted at the lighthouse, light-optical equipment was changed. During all the next years the light-optical units at the lighthouse were repeatedly changed for more powerful ones, and after installing the automatic light-optical unit АСА-500 the lighthouse light obtained the following characteristics: white, flashing, periodicity – 4.5 s, visibility range – about 17 miles.

After installing a radioisotope thermoelectrical generator and modern code radio beacon the Zmiiny Island lighthouse began working in half-automatic regime.

The above generator which term was completed in 2002 was dismounted and taken out from the island.

Besides the lighthouse there are additional aids to navigation: the Northern approach and Northern island leading lines, reference stations. The lighthouse operates owing to autonomous power supply system on solar batteries, there is a diesel-generator for reserve supply, and accumulators for the emergency case.

Lighthouse Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°04.5' N
Longitude – 30°28.3' Е
Tower height from the basement – 32 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 34 m
Light visibility range – 16 miles

From times immemorial (the 6th century B.C.) there existed a shipping lane between the Greek city of Byzantia located on the European coast of the Bosporus and a city of Tir on the western coast of the Dnistrovs'kyi Firth (Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi city, now). A new capital of the Roman Empire Constantinople was founded by Roman Emperor Constantin 1 in 324–330 A.D. in the place of Bizantia. This city was called "Tsargorod" in the Old Russian documents. Tsaregrad was a considerable trade, economic and culture centre, a city with well-developed marine fleet. That explains the lighthouse name – "Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi lighthouse", since it showed the mariners their path from the Dniester to Tsaregrad.

To mark the Tsaregrad mouth a navigation mark was built in 1827; it had two fixed horizontal white lights, which were elevated at 52 feet above the sea level and illuminated the horizon at a distance of 4–5 miles. The light sources were the lighthouse illuminants on rape oil which operation was controlled by one keeper. The navigation mark existed in such a form till 1851.

In 1850 the administration of the Black Sea Lighthouses approved the decision: "From September 21, 1851 the Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi mark is given a status of the lighthouse headed by a chief pilot with a team of six mariners. The mark structure remains unchanged, its height being increased. Plant oil should be changed by petroleum (oil refining product) and lighting should be performed using a fuse".

The lighting change permitted to increase the light visibility range from 5 to 7 miles.

Later on, in 1884 the lighthouse was reconstructed. The woody column was changed for a 16 m high tower with a lantern premise, where they installed the Frenel lense with gas-heat device. Owing to this the light visibility range reached 10 miles.

In 1900 the Black Sea fleet began obtaining metal marks of the Eifel company from France. Such a lighthouse was installed there instead of the former Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi mark: a rotary device was also installed that resulted in increasing the light visibility range up to 14 miles.

In the first months of the Great Patriotic war the Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi lighthouse found itself in the territory occupied by Germans, but it avoided ruining. But in August 1944, when severe liberating battles developed in the Dnistrovs'kyi firth region, the invaders exploded the lighthouse tower.

The Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi lighthouse was of rather great importance for the navigation, thus already in the beginning of 1945 the building works were started, and late in October of the same year it was completely reconstructed and put into operation.

From 1965 the acetylene lanterns at lighthouses were changed by the electrical ones. In 1977 there came the turn of the Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi lighthouse; automatic light-optical units (ACA-500) were installed at the tower, and the light visibility range reached 16 miles. But that was not enough. Then, in 1989, a new metal tower was put in operation; it was equipped with ACA-500 and a round visibility shield 12 m high. The new tower height exceeded 30 m. In the year of Ukraine independence technological equipment of the lighthouse was permanently improved, measures were taken to ensure the lighthouse continuous operation.

Lighthouse Sanzhiis'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°13.5' N
Longitude – 30°36.5' E
Tower height from the basement – 28 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 41 m
Light visibility range – 17 m

The lighthouse was erected near the village of Sanzhiika at a distance of 10.6 miles north-westwards from the Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'kyi mouth to ensure the safety of navigation at approaches to the ports of lllichivs'k and Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi.

The lighthouse was built in 1921, and in July 1921 its light was switched on. In the period from 1921 to 1938 the lighthouse was subordinated to the Odesa pilot authorities, and after the pilot authorities were reformed into the hydrographic services it was subordinated to Odesa region of the hydrographic service. It is significant that it worked without any faults and breaks in its operation, even during the occupation by Hitlerites and during the battles for the liberation of the territory. The optical lighting unit was renewed there in 1953. Though the visibility range of the lighthouse light was 12 miles, that did not satisfy the mariners: the navigation in the north-western part of the Black Sea became more and more intensive, the speed of ships and vessels increased. Then the lighthouse reconstruction was started in 1957, that was finished late in 1960. A new stone lighthouse tower was constructed, and the light visibility range increased to 17 miles.

The Radar beacon as well as the reserve light were installed at the Sanzhiis'kyi lighthouse in 1987. It was modernized again in 1987.

New Lighthouse tower was put into exploitation at the end of 2010. All navigational and technical features of the previous building are reproduced in the new one. As far as new tower was established 3 m lower above the Sea level than the previous one, it has been decided to add to its height up to 9 m in order to amend visibility, thereafter its height increased by up to 6 m. Day-time visibility range of the lighthouse and tower’s shape are far better now than it was before.

Lighthouse Shagany
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 45°40.4' N
Longitude – 29°53.1' Е
Tower height from the basement – 16 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 20 m
Light visibility range – 14 miles

The Shagany Lighthouse functioned, at first, as the navigation light which was installed in 1944 at the tower of the building roof on the bar which separated the salt Shagany Lake from the sea. When numerous lighthouses were built and reconstructed in the after-war period the Shagany lighthouse was renewed as well: two conical visibility shields were installed on a metal frame at the upper part of the ferroconcrete tower.

A new light-optical unit began functioning at the lighting mark tower in 1983; owing to it the light visibility range increased to 14 miles, as a result, the navigation mark was certified as a lighthouse working in automatic regime. Besides, the lighthouse is equipped with a radar responder beacon and reserve light.

A capital repair was performed in the lighthouse in 2002. Since that time the technical condition of the building, power pavilion and lighthouse tower are maintained at a due level by personnel of SHSU Branch "Odes'kyi Area of SHSU".

Now, the lighthouse reliably ensures the necessary safety of navigation on Ust'-Dunais'k port approaches.

Lighthouse Budaky
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 45°55.3' N
Longitude – 30°17.3' Е
Tower height from the basement – 15 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 38 m
Light visibility range – 17 miles

The Budaky lighthouse was mounted in 1851 on the steep coast, at a distance of 8.8 miles north-eastwards from the Burnas Cape. Since then it has ensured a safe navigation for vessels on the approaches to the Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi port.

Lighthouse lllichivs'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°18.9' N
Longitude – 30°40.9' E
Tower height from the basement – 19 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 20 m
Light visibility range – 15 miles

The I11ichivs'kyі lighthouse was mounted on June 15, 1965 at the margin of the Southern protective mole at the entrance to the commercial sea port of lllichivs'k located in the Sukhoi firth at a distance of 26 km from Odesa and 17 miles north-eastwards from the Dnistrovs'ko-Tsaregrads'ke Mouth.

The lighthouse has the form of around concrete tower with red and white horizontal bands. It belongs to the class of lighthouses on hydrotechnical basis. The tower itself is made of prefabricated reinforced concrete and the floor of prefabricated reinforced concrete plates covered with coating.

The lllichivs'kyi lighthouse light was switched on for the first time on October 5, 1965. Since then it has served reliably for marine safety of navigation on the approach to the port, though it often suffered from the inroad of elements. The lighthouse maintenance personnel always timely eliminated all troubles, performed repairs, made every effort for the lighting devices functioned properly. Especially great amount of work was done at the lighthouse in 2005. In particular, the up-to-date light-diode devices, an autonomous power supply system on the basis of the solar battery and wind power devices and a modern system of remote control of the lighthouse equipment operation were established.

Lighthouse Odes'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°22.7' N
Longitude – 30°44.9' Е
Tower height from the basement – 42 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 84 m
Light visibility range – 22 miles

The Odes'ka Bay was known by mariners even in the Medievals. The Khadzhibey fortress with a settlement stood in the place of today's Odesa in the time of Turkey dominion. The fortress belonged formerly to Greeks and had a name of Odessus. Appreciating the historical memory the Khadzhibei fortress, conquered by Russia in 1799, was given the name of Odesa.

The first capital lighthouse was built in Odesa in 1827 on the initiative and for the money of the local civil trade authorities. It was placed at a distance of 6 miles from the Quarantine dock on the Velyky Fontan Cape near the Assumption monastery and had a form of the white stone round tower with a lantern which included a catoptric lighting device – a lamp with 11 reflectors. Cod-liver oil was used as the lamp fuel.

At first, the lighthouse light was "rotary", i.e. it was of the flash character: "light appears every two minutes; its appearance is preceded by a full darkness, that lasts from 5 to 6 second". The light elevation above the sea level was 59 m, that from the tower basement – 28 m, the signal visibility range was 19.5 miles.

Mariners were rather grateful for the new lighthouse, but they complained that it was often difficult for them to distinguish between the Odesa lighthouse and the nearest Tendrivs'kyi lighthouse, since the latter was also of the flash character. Then, from August 1829 the Odes'kyi lighthouse began lighting with a fixed light.

A dioptric (refracting) light-optical Frenel device of the 1 st category, bought in Paris, was installed in 1861 at this lighthouse which was the first one on the Black Sea coast.

The regular light was given by this first in Russia electrical lighthouse on May 14, 1868. The Foucault lamp with coke rods with a spark occurring between them became the light source.

The technical devices new for that time were improved every year and the lighthouse operation became more and more reliable. Even the most sworn skeptics began to believe in the future of electric supply of lighthouses.

In 1914 and 1915, in the war time conditions, the lighthouse did not operate, its lights were switched off on July 20, 1914. By order of the commander of Ukrainian Insurgent Army time electric generators were passed to military department for illuminating searchlights. The lighthouse operation was irregular during the Civil War. Its lights were switched on only in 1923.

The tower and official premises of the lighthouse were repaired completely in 1926–1931, and on the eve of 1941 a radio beacon of foreign brand "Wilcox" and nautophone were put in operation there.

In the following years the lighthouse technological means were continuously improved: they installed a circular radio beacon, a new home light-optical unit, changed the "Wilcox" radio beacon by a more perfect one and a powerful nautophone was mounted there.

A lot of distinguished people were on service at the Odes'kyi lighthouse, a dynasty of lighthouse keepers Zakharovs were on the active list here for above 100 years.

Kyrylo Zakharov was the dynasty founder; he started his work at the lighthouse in a century before the last one. When he was very old and had no forces to climb upstairs to the tower, he passed his business to his son Ivan and began doing a fireman's work at the steam siren. He finished his course of life at that post.

Grygoriy, a grandson of the old lighthouse operator, went to defend his Motherland in 1941. He came back from the war decorated with the Red Star Order, and followed the work of his grandfather and father at the Tendrivs'kyi lighthouse, and in 1975 he headed the collective of the Odes'kyi lighthouse.

The Zakharovs keep one relic dear to their family. That is the first key from the tower of the Odes'kyi lighthouse of 1827 which is a symbol of their devotion to the lighthouse service.

Lighthouse Vorontsovs'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°29.8' N
Longitude – 30°45.7' Е
Tower height from the basement – 26 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 27 m
Light visibility range – 15 miles

The lighthouse was built in 1845, though the decision about its construction on the Quarantine mole of Odesa was made a year before. Almost a year had passed before the royal resolution was obtained and assets allotted. There firstly appeared a guard-ship house with a very high, of 26 meters, tower with two oil lanterns which were lifted with the help of a hoist.

This lighthouse did not stand long. At the beginning of the Crimean war it was dismounted, and only late in 1858 the Odesa governor-general, count Stroganov, submitted an application to the highest instance about the lighthouse renewal, his argument was that "the mariners complain of the absence of such a necessary structure in this port and they are afraid that vessels are subject to the danger to be wrecked".

After long-term following from instance to instance the letter got to rear-admiral G.I.Butakov, an exigent man of decision, who was the Black Sea Fleet Commander at that time. The necessary equipment was brought to Odesa by the ship "Prut", and on May 20, 1859 the lighthouse light was renewed. Four years later, simultaneously with the mounting the monument to count Vorontsov, a pig- iron tower, almost 9 m high and crowned with a special lantern, was also opened. It was the Vorontsovs'kyi lighthouse.

In 1866 the construction of the Roadstead mole which was the continuation of the Quarantine mole was started in Odesa.

After finishing the mole building (it was prolonged by 480 fathoms) a new metal Vorontsovs'kyi lighthouse was constructed on its extremity in 1888. It was 17 m high, equipped with Frenel system rotary device of the 3rd category.

A good many of misfortunes fell to the lighthouse lot. One of them was the fire of 1914, caused by the inflammation of a barge with gasoline in the Odesa port. The barge was submerged, and the barrels with gasoline were cast up upon the mole, where they began exploding. The flame reached the lantern building area, glasses cracked, window frames were distorted, copper chimneys splitted, paint on the tower was burnt and the tower itself was covered with fly ash. The light was surely extinguished, but the lighthouse was to be repaired.

Stormy nights of 1926 reminded again the difficulties in maintaining of lighting units. The hurricane wind threw heavy waves to the mole which washed out a 10 m long massif in it, and the lighthouse ties with the land were broken. Only on the seventh day it became possible to take down a weakened lighthouse keeper who was on duty during that storm and did everything that the lighthouse could give light, supported the siren and bell sounds. That was the highest evidence of the adherence to professional and patriotic duties.

After the Great Patriotic war a temporal woody tower with acetylene lantern was installed at the lighthouse ruins, and in 1955 there arised a 26 m high snow-white tower of cylindrical form assembled of pig-iron tubings. That was the first type pig-iron tower built in the former USSR in the post¬war years.

A "pig-iron-lead" construction technology used at the lighthouse has justified its high quality in the long-term constant close contact with aggressive sea environment.

Service at the Vorontsovs'kyi lighthouse located at the extremity of the mole, cutting into the sea as a narrow strip, is rather diffi¬cult. When autumn winds are blowing, the disturbed waves cover the mole and block the way to the lighthouse. It is impossible to get there both by land and in a boat: one can break against the stones. All the attempts to fence the stone road of the mole failed. It hap¬pened that the watch-operators could not be replaced for several days, danger waited for them everywhere.

There is everything at the lighthouse that could provide for its continuous operation. The duplicate systems are foreseen there, which can automatically change each other. Light and sound signals are transmitted from the lighthouse. Owing to the efforts of lighthouse operators the light range has been increased as much as possible.

Remote control is provided at Vorontsovs'kyi lighthouse. Now, the watch-men would not be afraid of storms and hurricanes. Staying on land, they can if it is required, to control remotedly the light, nautophone and radio beacon of the light¬house.

Lighthouse Luzanivs'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°33.1' N
Longitude – 30°49.7' N
Tower height from the basement – 10 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 56 m
Light visibility range – 16 miles

The Luzanivs'kyi lighthouse is a relatively young one; it was formerly called the light navigation mark "Odes'kyi Pivnichny" (Odes'kyi Northern).

A tower of prefabricated ferroconcrete elements was constructed by the type project at a distance of 3 cables from the Pivnichny Odesky cape in 1972. A woody visibility shield in a form of a cylinder was installed on a metal frame in the upper part of the tower. Later on, in 1979, the tower was equipped with a new light-optical unit, which provided the light visibility range of 16 miles, that allowed to give the light mark a status of the lighthouse, which was called the Luzanivs'kyi lighthouse.

Twenty years later, in 1999, the lighthouse was repaired in capital.

The Luzanivs'kyi lighthouse operation is automated, it is equipped with a reserve light. The lighthouse is always on the watch of safety of navigation, illuminating the approaches to the ports of Odesa and Yushny.

Lighthouse Hryhorivs'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°36.0' N
Longitude – 31°00.1' Е
Tower height from the basement – 15 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 60 m
Light visibility range – 18 miles.

The Hryhorivs'kyi lighthouse, mounted at a distance of 3.8 miles from the Dofinivka Cape, ensures the required safe navigation for vessels on the approaches to the ports of Odesa, Yuzhny and in the direction of the Buz'ko-Dniprovs'ko-Lymans'kyi channel.

It was mounted in 1955 as a light navigation mark. But later, in 1972, like all other marks of this class, it was reconstructed: following a single type project they have built a new tower for it. A woody visibility shield in a form of a cylinder (with a cut cone under it) was fastened to the tower apex. The light mark optical units were changed in 1983 and 1986, as a result, the light visibility range reached 18 miles, that allowed the mark to be classified as the lighthouse. In 1997 the Hryhorivs'kyi lighthouse was subjected to capital repair, and owing to its new equipment it operates automatically, though it has a reserve light.

Lighthouse Karabush
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°37.0' N
Longitude – 31°15.б'Е
Tower height from the basement – 16 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 55 m
Light visibility range – 18 miles

The Karabush lighthouse was mounted at a distance of 3.5 cables northwards from the Karabush Cape in 1955. It was the light navigation mark then. But in 1972 it was reconstructed, following the type project, of prefabricated ferroconcrete elements, and a woody cylinder-shaped visibility shield was fastened to the metal frame at the tower apex. A new light-optical unit was installed at the lighthouse in 1983; it provided the light visibility range of about 18 miles. That allowed to relate the light mark Karabush to the class of lighthouses which operate in the automatic regime.

In 2003 the lighthouse was subject to the capital repair. Now it serves to mariners who come to the port of Yuzhny or pursue a course to the Buz'ko-Dniprovs'ko-Lymans'kyi channel.


The sea ports of Kerch, Sevastopol, Feodosiia, Yalta, Yevpatoriia are closed until the restoration of the constitutional order of Ukraine within the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol that are temporarily occupied by the Russian Federation (in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine on June 16, 2014, No. 255).