Mykolaiv Branch of the State Hydrographic Service of Ukraine

Lighthouse Siversiv Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°53.6' N
Longitude – 32°00.8' E
Tower height from the basement – 18 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 16 m
Light visibility range – 15 miles
Lighthouse Siversiv Rear
Geographic coordinates:
Located at 1.5 miles from the Front one
Tower height from the basement – 10 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 45 m
Light visibility range – 16 miles

Both lighthouses were built in 1866 on the Siversiv Beak: The Front lighthouse – at the beak margin, and the Rear one at a distance of 2778 m from the Front one. Those were ordinary woody towers in a form of the cut pyramids with lights, which ensured safe passing of vessels in this part of the Buh river.

As a result of storms, under which the Siversiv Beak profile changed, the depths also changed, and thus the Siversiv lighthouses were reconstructed and re-equipped severaltimes. They built a stone tetrahedral tower on the Front lighthouse in 1886 instead of the woody tower. The stone tower was connected with a two-storey house. Two illuminating devices were established on the upper floor: the reflecting device with two reflectors which gave a fixed red light from the main facade in the direction of the leading line, and reflective light – in the window of the right lateral facade of the tower.

The light character was changed on the Front lighthous in 1871: it began giving a fixed white light instead of the red one.

The Siversiv lighthouses were reconstructed again after the Great Patriotic war. And now side by side with the Kostiantynivs'kyii lighthouse they form two leading lines, providing the navigation in 11 and 12 elbows of the Buz'ko-Dniprovs'ko-Lymans'kyi channel.

In 1967 the Seversiv Front lighthouse was modernized. Now, it is a white tower, and in the direction to the leading line it is a red hexahedral stone tower with a white vertical stripe. The light color is red, visibility range – 15 miles. Under unfavourable weather conditions the lighthous gives light both at night and in the day time.

The Rear Siversiv lighthouse was also modernized in 1975. It is a good-quality stone tower today, the upper part of which is orange, and the lower one is white. The lighthouse gives a fixed white light with visibility range of 16 miles. Under unfavourable weather the lighthouse also lights in the daytime.

 

Lighthouse Dnipro-Lymans'kyi Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°34.5' N
Longitude – 31°33.7' E
Tower height from the basement – 27 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 24 m
Lighthouse Dnipro-Lymans'kyi Rear
Located at 0.4 cables from the Front lighthouse
Light visibility range of both lighthouses is 5 miles.

Neither of the lighthouses in the Dniprovs'kyi firth may be considered separately, because they operate as a system and regulate the navigation in a certain elbow of the Buz'ko-Dniprovs'ko-Lymans'kyi channel. These lighthouses provide the navigation in Pervomais'kyi (third) elbow of the above channel. By the way, they are usually called Pervomais'kyi lighthouses, since they are built on the Pervomais'kyi island which is located northwards from the Kinburns'ka beak.

This island is an artificial one, which was built in the 70's of the 19th century for establishing the Mykolaiv sea battery on it to defend the firth entrance.

At first there was a small lighthouse for marking the island location (1876), and later on, in 1883 a lighthouse was also built. Metal towers were ordered in Mykolaiv for the future lighthouses and, on August 21, 1884 they both were put into operation, and called the Front and Rear Dnipro-Lymans'kyi Lighthouses.

On this occasion there appeared information in Sailing Directions of the Black and Azov Seas: "The lighthouse towers are metal, meshed and red. Illumination reflective devices are of the 4th category. The lighthouse lights are fixed and red. The elevation of long-range light – 63 feet above the firth level, that of the short-range light – 45 feet. Distance between towers – 48 fathoms, NW and SE direction of leading line is 86°24'. The lighthouses provide the safety of navigation in the western part of the firth...".

The Front lighthouse was reconstructed in the time of the Soviet Power. It was in 1926. The Rear lighthouse was reconstructed only in 1955.

The Front lighthouse as well as the Rear one lights today with white, red and green lights. It also works in the day time under unfavourable weather. The lighthouse light visibility range is 5 miles. The Front lighthouse operates automatically.

 

Lighthouse Katalyne Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°45.7' N
Longitude – 31°52.5' E
Tower height from the basement – 18 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 55 m
Light visibility range – 8 miles
Lighthouse Katalyne Rear
Is located at a distance of 5 cables from the Front one
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°45.4' N
Longitude – 31°52.9'E

The lighthouse marks the ninth elbow of the Buz'ko-Dniprovs'ko-Lymans'kyi channel. It was necessary to build lighthouses there because the channel always required deepening, intensity of vessel navigation increased in it and this, naturally, complicated the navigation, caused collisions, runnings aground. Thus dozens of lighthouses were built at BDLC for the years of its functioning, dozens of marks of different purpose were established.

As to the Lighthouse Katalyne Rear, it was built in 1915 as one of the leading lighthouses.

These lighthouses were subjected to destruction in the long years of their existence. They were reconstructed in 1957, their light devices were reequipped, the adjacent territory was equipped.

The Lighthouse Katalyne Rear looks today as a red rectangular shield with a black vertical stripe fastened to red openwork tetrahedral metal tower. It gives light in the direction of leading line of the ninth elbow. At low visibility it also works in the day time.

The Katalyne Front lighthouse usually functions in automatic regime.

 

Lighthouse Adzhyhol's'kyi Rear
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°37.9' N
Longitude – 31°46.1' E
Tower height from the basement – 24 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 67 m
Light visibility range – 23 miles

The word "Adzhyhol" translated from Turkic means a "bitter lake". That was the ancient name of both the cape in the northern coast of the firth and a lake at this cape borderline.

The navigation in the Adzhyhol elbow of the Buz'ko-Dniprovs'ko-Lymans'kyi channel is carried out following the Kinburns'kyi leading lights which were installed on the beak of the same name in 1857. But when these leading lights were destructed as a results of the great storm, they had to install them on the northern coast of the Dniprovs'kyi firth near the Adzhyhol settlement. They came in force in August 1, 1866. Catoptric lighting units were installed at both lighthouses: six lamps and reflectors at the far lighthouse and four at the near one. The far lighthouse gave white light at a distance of 15 miles, and the near one, which stood over the steep slope, gave a fixed red light at a distance of 12 miles. The lighthouses gave light all year round except for the period when the water space was covered with the dence ice.

New dioptric lighting units were installed at those lighthouses in 1932, they changed the lamp with a kerosene torch for gas-heat luminaries which increased the light power and light visibility range respectively.

In the 60's of the last century the leading lighthouses were reconstructed when it became necessary for navigation of high draught vessels in the channel.

A memorial plate dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the lighthouse foundation was opened at the lighthouse Adzhyhol's'kyi Rear in 1966.

 

Lighthouse Stanislav-Adzhyhol's'kyi Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46° 30,7'
Longitude – 32° 09,2'
Tower height from the basement – 24 m
Light elevation above the Sea-level – 26 m

The lighthouse was built on the artificial islet on a rubble base in 1915 after the design of engineer-academician V. H. Shukhov. It lights with red flashing light. At poor visibility on mariners request it is switched on in the daytime as well. In the direction of Stanislav-Adzhihol's'kyi leading line, which is the first channel elbow when following to Kherson. Range of light visibility is 16 miles.

The lighthouse is a dark-red lattice round metal tower on hydrotechnical basement.

Lighthouse Stanislav-Adzhyhol's'kyi Rear
Situated at 3,5 miles from the Front
Tower height from the basement – 64 m
Light elevation above the Sea-level – 67 m

The lighthouse was also built on the artificial islet on a rubble base. It lights in the direction of the leading line with white flashing light. Its range of visibility is 19 miles.

 

Lighthouse Viktorivs'kyi Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°37.7' N
Longitude – 31°27.0' E
Tower height from the basement – 17 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 19 m
Light visibility range – 12 miles
Lighthouse Viktorivs'kyi Rear
Geographic coordinates:
Located at a distance of 2.4 miles from the Front one
Tower height from the basement – 16 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 41 m
Light visibility range – 18 miles

Both lighthouses are intended to illuminate the second (Viktorivs'kyi) elbow which passes along the Kinburns'ka Beak. They were installed in the western coast of the Berezan'skyi firth in 1856.

In the early 70's of the 19th century the lighthouses were reconstructed and looked as woody cut pyramids with lantern structures. Both lighthouses had catoptric lighting units of four lamps with reflectors. The distance between them was 650 m.

The Front lighthouse (south-eastern) gave fixed red light, while the Rear one (north-western) – the fixed white light. The red light allowed the vessels to recognize that important leading mark among a lot of lights, that often occurred in a narrow waterway at the entrance of the Dniprovs'kyi firth.

Lighthouses location, their lighting units were changed many times. That occurred because in 1874 hydrographers found out that the outline of the Kinburns'la Beak and depth in its vicinity had changed. That generated a need to change a bit the waterway direction and thus the leading line. The reorganization works were started but were soon stopped because of the Russian-Turkish War beginning in 1877–1878. The works were renewed only in 1879, that was caused by vessels running aground in shallow waters of the Kinburns'ka Beak. In 1882 a new leading line of lighthouses was in operation. It was called Viktorivs'kyi by the name of the village situated on the western coast of the Berezans'kyi firth.

Allowing for the circumstance that the waterway could often change its direction, that, in its turn, caused a necessity to change the leading line direction, new lighthouses were made light, transferable, with openwork structure and dismountable.

The Rear lighthouse, 9.8 m high, remained at the western coast of the Berezans'kyi firth near the vil. of Viktorivka, while the Front one (5.5 m high) was installed at the margin of the Lagerna Beak of the eastern coast of the Berezans'kyi firth.

However, these lighthouses were to be reconstructed once more. That occurred after the Great Patriotic war. The Rear lighthouse was put in operation in 1951, and the Front one only in 1969.

The Front lighthouse gives light even in the day-time at weak visibility. Its light is fixed, red, with visibility range of 12 miles.

The Rear lighthouse gives a fixed light with visibility range of 18 miles. It lights even in the day-time, at weak visibility.

 

Lighthouse Luparivs'kyi Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°41.3' N
Longitude – 31°58.5' E
Tower height from the basement – 13 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 26 m
Light visibility range – 16 miles
Lighthouse Kyslyakivs'kyi Rear
Geographic coordinates:
Located at 3.2 miles from the Front one
Tower height from the basement – 12 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 57 m
Light visibility range – 19 miles

The lighthouse that was named Kyslyakivs'kyi and was installed in 1862 in the steppe at the stone basement of the former Kyslyakivs'kyi Telegraph destructed by time. The lighthouse was constructed in the form of the tower, 10 m high, with four supports. A square wooden board was fastened in the upper part of the tower for a better visibility. A stone tetrahedral pyramid, 6 m high, was built there only 10 years later. A white tower, 10.4 m high, with a red roof and a lantern structure (Rear lighthouse of leading line) arised instead of the pyramid, when a leading line was constructed in 1906 for safe navigation in the fourth elbow of BDLC. The tower had a dioptric light-optical unit of the 4th category, which gave fixed white light with visibility range of about 19 miles. Such was the Kyslyakivs'kyi lighthouse.

Another lighthouse (the Front lighthouse), which created a leading line of 40.2°–220.2° in combination with the former lighthouse , was built at a distance of 3.2 miles from the Rear lighthouse.

The Kyslyavkivs'kyi lighthouse was ruined during the Great Patriotic war, while Luparivs'kyi lighthouse was only partially destructed. They were reconstructed in 1955, to be more precise, new lighthouses were built at the same spots. Those were white, tetrahedral stone towers. Their lantern buildings were equipped with light-optical units with fixed red light which gives light in the leading direction.

 

Lighthouse Khablivs'kyi Rear
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°40.3' N
Longitude – 32°01.9' E
Tower height from the basement – 24 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 58 m
Light visibility range – 20 miles
Lighthouse Khablivs'kyi Middle
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°39.4' N
Longitude – 31°59.1' E
Tower height from the basement – 11 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 34 m
Light visibility range – 10 miles

The Buz'ko-Dniprovs'kyi Firth has become a place of rather intensive navigation of the naval and trading vessels, which could be both sailboats and steamers, even since the end of the 18th century. Allowing for the above mentioned as well as the complicated passing through shallow waters and narrow sections the Black-Sea, hydrographers always paid special attention to the navigation-hydrographic maintenance in this section, to the building of lighthouses, in particular.

A safe approaching of the naval and trading vessels to Mykolaiv and Kherson was prevented by the Ochakivs'kyi Bar and shallow waters of firth. That is why in 1828–1836 the Marine Ministry dug through the Ochakivs'kyi Bar a 3 km channel, with 53 m width and 5.5 m depth for the needs of the navy. The new channel passed not only through the firth but also entered the South Buh River and the Dnieper mouth creating certain elbows. There soon appeared thirteen such elbows. That complicated the navigation of vessels and increased a probability of their collisions, running aground, etc.

To decrease the number of such cases the Khablivs'kyi Middle lighthouse was built in 1902 at a distance of 2.6 miles from the operating Khablivs'kyi Front lighthouse on the left bank of the South Buh River. At the same time the Khablivs'kyi Rear lighthouse appeared on the left bank at a distance of 4.67 miles from the Front one. They reliably showed the mariners their way from the Khablivs'kyi elbow to Dniprovs'kyi Firth elbow of BDLC (and vice versa).

In the years of the Great Patriotic war both lighthouses which undergone essential minings, were completely rebuilt only in 1952. The more reliable lighting equipment was installed at that time.

 

As to its structure the Khablivs'kyi Rear lighthouse looks like the Middle one, only its tower is red with black stripes on it. It gives light, like others, in the leading direction at night and at weak visibility in the day-time.

 

The Lighthouse Rus'kyi Rear
Geographic coordinates:
Located at a distance of 9 cables from the Front lighthouse
Tower height from the basement and Light elevation above the Sea level are –32 m
Light visibility range – 15 miles

 

The lighthouse was switched on for the first time on April 23, 1863. It gave light during the whole navigation. It was switched off only when the all-around space was covered with solid ice and the navigation was ceased in that region.

But light-optical eguipment of the lighthouse did not meet the navigators requirements: the light was weak and broadly scattered. Only after the steamer Mitridat ran aground near the Rus'ka Beak, a new octahedral lantern with more powerful dioptric light-optical unit was installed at the lighthouse. White colour of the light was changed then by red one. The lighthouse worked in such a way up to the Great Patriotic war. The war hardships have not passed by the Rus'kyi lighthouse tower. Its was ruined during the battles. And the building was reconstructed only in 1955. The new tower height was almost 17.4 m. In the course of time it was also reconstructed. In 1985, after total reconstruction of the navigation barrier of the eighth elbow of the channel, the lighthouse arised as a white octahedral ferroconcrete tower, 32 m high, with a lift inside it. It was made much to ensure the proper dwelling and labour conditions of the lighthouse personnel. Thus, the lighthouse operators enjoy comfort and do with pleasure that important work which they are entrusted with.

 

Lighthouse Tendrivs'kyi
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°9.4' N
Longitude – 31°30.9' Е
Tower height from the basement – 31 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 29 m
Light visibility range – 16 miles

The Tendrivs'kyi lighthouse is one of the largest lighthouses in the Black Sea coast: it was installed in 1827 in the western coast of the Tendrivs'kyi Beak, 2.8 miles southwards from its northern margin. That was caused by a necessity to prevent from frequent runnings aground of the vessels which followed from Bosporus to Odesa. It is known that even ancient Greeks made fires on this beak because their vessels often vanished in this region. When going from Bosporus to Odesa the boats were often drifted down eastwards by the stream and wind, as a result, they ran aground near Tendra.

The lighthouse gives regular light from September 11, 1827.

It was built in the desert desolate place even without field roads, that made the construction works and maintenance rather complicated. It appeared soon that the beak was slowly washed away from the sea side. If the surf line was at a distance of 94 m when the construction was finished, in forty years it approached by 7 meters. It was a threat of ruining for the lighthouse. It was repaired several times: they tried to level it, to support it with stones, made jetties. But everything was in vain.

Only in 1903–1904 the lighthouse was overhauled. The catoptric device with 16 kerosine torch lamps was changed by Frenel lenses in a set with a lantern device.

In the years of the Civil War and intervention the lighthouse was put out of operation and went on line only late in 1923. All the next years up to 1941, despite of great difficulties and unfavourable dwelling conditions for personnel, the lighthouse was kept in order.

In the years of the Great Patriotic war the lighthouse found itself in the centre of the battles for the Tendrivs'kyi Beak. The artillery battery was located there which supported the escorts of the vessels defending Odesa and there was also a base of the torpedo boats. The manipulation stations of the 1st (Sevastopol) manipulation detachment were developed on a shallow; they controlled the departure of ships and transport vessels from Odesa.

After the liberation of the Crimea the lighthouse was renewed, equipped with modern lighthouse devices, capital buildings and houshold premises were reconstructed or built again. A new light-optical device was installed in 1975, and in the early 90's there appeared a nautophone, radar responder beacon, radio beacon, reserve light.

 

Lighthouse of Berezans'ko-Ochakivs'ke elbow Front
Geographic coordinates:
Latitude – 46°36.6' N
Longitude – 31°32.5' E
Tower height from the basement – 19 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 38m
Light visibility range – 14 miles
Lighthouse of Berezans'ko-Ochakivs'ke elbow Rear
It is at a distance of 4.5 cables from the Front lighthouse
Tower height from the basement – 20 m
Light elevation above the Sea level – 49 m
Light visibility range – 14 miles

These belong to the oldest lighthouses in the Black Sea. They were founded in 1826 to border the shallow and for safe entry of vessels to the Dniprovs'kyi firth which was always rather dangerous because of bad noticeability of the Kinburns'ka Beak. Various historical sources evidence that shallows were fenced there from times immemorial. It was early in the 19th century that the Kinburn leading mark was made on the left bank of the Dniprovs'kyi firth, i.e. that was a nonluminous leading line, with two stone marks of the same height – 11m. But the navigation also continued at night. Then beginning from 1826 a light ship was placed at a distance of 100 m north-westwards from the Kinburns'ka Beak margin to mark the firth entrance at night for the period of navigation. But severe storms in summer and firth freezing up in winter made the services to take away such lightships. Thus there arised a guestion of a necessity of fixed, reliable, navigation lights. That was decided in 1856: the luminous Ochakive marks were constructed to provide the navigation along the first (Berezans'ko-Ochakivs'ke) elbow of the Buz'ko-Dniprovs'ko-Lymans'kyi channel. They were later reconstructed and re-eguipped several times.

Capital stone lighthouses of the Berezans'ko-Ochakivs'ke elbow were built in 1932. The Front (south-western) lighthouse gave red isophase light with visibility range of 14 miles, and the Rear (south-eastern) one – red light which was shaded. It also had the visibility range of 14 miles. Besides, the both lighthouses had additional lights which lighted in the leading line direction when the weather was bad. They look so even now. At present-day lighthouse settlement has been built at the Rear Lighthouse of the Berezans'ko-Ochakivs'ke elbow which is located at a distance of 4–5 cables from the Front one.






CARTOGRAPHIC PRODUCTS

The sea ports of Kerch, Sevastopol, Feodosiia, Yalta, Yevpatoriia are closed until the restoration of the constitutional order of Ukraine within the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol that are temporarily occupied by the Russian Federation (in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine on June 16, 2014, No. 255).